The population of Luxembourg is characterized on the one hand by a strong demographic growth, essentially due to a positive incoming migratory balance, and on the other hand by a high proportion of foreigners among Luxembourg residents.
Population of Luxembourg on January 1, 2022
The number of inhabitants in Luxembourg was 314,900 in 1961 with a proportion of 13.2% of foreigners. The country reached a population of 645,397 inhabitants on December 31, 2021, an increase of 1.7% in one year. 25,335 new residents arrived in the country in 2021, compared with 15,959 departures.
The proportion of foreigners was 47.12% at the end of December 2021, and they were younger overall than Luxembourgers. Men represent 50.3% of the population. Their average age is 39.0 years, and 40.4 years for women.
Studies by STATEC, the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, forecasts in its studies published at the end of 2017,a population of over 1 million people in 2060!
A small population with a good quality of life
Luxembourg is one of the smallest European countries and one of the least populated. It is characterized by a high standard of living and a constantly increasing life expectancy. Life expectancy is 80.3 years for men and 84.8 years for women.
Standard of living of Luxembourg residents
The standard of living in Luxembourg is relatively high when compared to other European countries, and especially to neighboring countries. High salaries, important social benefits, the Grand Duchy continues to attract a population looking for a job and a good quality of life. On the other hand, real estate prices are high and reach price levels comparable to those of London and Paris in some areas.
Luxembourg a land of immigration
Very popular with expatriates who come to find career opportunities and an excellent quality of life, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is one of the safest countries in the world. Today, 80% of the population growth is due to immigration. It is mostly young immigration. See where immigrants settle when they arrive in Luxembourg.
For a long time now, Luxembourg has been a land of welcome for many immigrants who come here to find work, among other things. The Italians arrived after the Second World War until the mid-sixties. They are followed by the Portuguese who arrive in Luxembourg in several waves, corresponding to the crises in Portugal: end of the sixties, 1975-1982, 2003-2009.
Since 2014, French immigration has taken over. They represent in 2019 nearly 15% of the migrants.
In 2021, the Portuguese are again the first community to settle in Luxembourg with 3,885 new arrivals. The French arrived with 3,590 immigrants, followed by the Italians with 1,909 new residents in Luxembourg. Spaniards and Indians are also the most numerous to arrive. they represent 8.3% and 7.7% of net migration respectively. The nationalities most represented among the new residents are Romanians, Brazilians, Syrians, Germans and Greeks.
If Ukrainians numbered 1,075 nationals on January 1, 2022, the war waged by Russia on Ukrainian territory should lead to a sharp increase in the number of Ukrainian nationals in Luxembourg.
On the other hand, there was a negative net migration of 1,486 Luxembourgers.
A multicultural Luxembourg society
One of the major characteristics of the Luxembourg population is the high proportion of foreigners. More than 175 different nationalities coexist in Luxembourg, 86.5% of them European.
The most represented communities on the Luxembourg territory are :
- the Portuguese community with 93,678 representatives and which represents the 1st foreign community in Luxembourg, i.e. 15.55% of the Luxembourg population,
- the French community with 49,173 nationals, i.e. the 2nd largest foreign community and more than 7.6% of the population of the Grand Duchy,
- the Italian community with 24,116 people and 3.74% of the population,
- the Belgian community with more than 19,414 residents,
- the German community with 12,796 people
- the Spanish community (8,388 residents)
- the Romanian community (6,405 residents)
- the Polish community (5,020 residents)
- the Chinese community with 4,142 residents, which makes up the top ten
- the British community (4,104 inhabitants against 5,766 in 2020, a decrease of 28%)
- the Dutch community (4,069 inhabitants)
- the Greek community with 4,017 inhabitants.
The Baltic and Scandinavian communities represent more than 6,800 people in Luxembourg.
The Asian communities represent 19,066 people in Luxembourg, i.e. 3% of the population, the Africans 13,668 people (2% of the population), the Americans 7,707 people including 4,901 North Americans, the Australians and the Oceanians 244 people.
It should be noted that for the third consecutive year, the number of naturalizations has decreased by more than 27%, with only 6,801 naturalizations compared to 9,387 in 2020. This can be explained by the fact that naturalization by recovery (presence of a Luxembourgish ancestor) will soon come to an end.
The share of Luxembourgers remains stable.
Languages spoken in Luxembourg by the population
Given the multiple origins of the inhabitants of Luxembourg, one is struck as soon as one arrives in the country by the diversity of languages spoken in public spaces.
A study conducted by the Ministry of National Education in 2018 showed that 98% of the population speaks French. English is spoken at 80%. German and Luxembourgish are used at 78 and 77%.
There are 3 official languages in Luxembourg:
- the national language since 1984, Lëtzebuergësch is used from thebeginning of school life. It is the language of daily exchanges. The knowledge of Luxembourgish is mandatory to obtain Luxembourgish nationality by naturalization.
- German, which is taught to children as soon as they enter elementary school. It is the language of literacy and reading and traditionally the language of newspapers,
- French is traditionally taught to children from the 2nd year of elementary school, in addition to German. Since 2017-2018, French has been introduced as early as the nursery and daycare, in oral learning. The French TV channel TV5 Monde had also shot a subject“Destination francophonie in Luxembourg“. Pilot schools in the south of Luxembourg will test literacy in French starting in the 2022 school year.
Luxembourg’s population has a Christian majority
According to a study published in 2011 by the CEPS, the majority of the Luxembourg population is Christian (73%), of which more than 90% is Catholic. Almost 25% of the population does not claim any religion. The Muslim religion, which has been on the rise in recent years, is represented by 2% of the population, mainly from the former Yugoslavia.
A working population in Luxembourg boosted by Europe
The Luxembourg labor market is a very active one, since in addition to the nearly 250,000 Luxembourg resident workers, more than 215,000 cross-border workers cross the French, Belgian and German borders every day to work in Luxembourg.
More and more international companies are coming to Luxembourg, such as Amazon, Ferrero, BGL BNPParibas, large international audit firms, … and attracting senior executives.
Moreover, the numerous European institutions present in Luxembourg can also partly explain this constant flow of population according to the movements of European officials.
The Court of Justice, the Court of First Instance, the Court of Auditors, the European Investment Bank, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, and several Commission departments are present and located mainly in the Kirchberg district. The European School I is also located in this area.
Today, almost 14,000 European officials are based in Luxembourg. They constitute nearly 5% of the resident workforce.
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