The population in Luxembourg

The population of Luxembourg is essentially characterized by a strong demographic growth, due to a positive incoming migratory balance. Moreover, the country has a high proportion of foreigners, mainly European.

Population of Luxembourg on January 1, 2023

On January 1, 2023, the population of Luxembourg will exceed 660,000 inhabitants. Although Luxembourg appears to beone of the smallest and least populatedEuropean countries, its population is growing strongly every year.

The country has reached a population of 660,814 inhabitants on December 31, 2023, an increase of 2.3% in one year. One fifth of its population lives in the capital Luxembourg.

In 2022, out of a population of 645,000 inhabitants ,the proportion of foreigners was 47.12% . Overall, foreigners are younger than the native Luxembourg population.

Men represented 50.3% of the population, with an average age of 39 years compared to 40.4 years for women.

In 1961, the number of inhabitants in Luxembourg was 314,900. The proportion of foreigners was then 13.2%. In 60 years, the country has more than doubled its population.

Studies by STATEC, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg’s national institute for statistics and economic studies, predict a population of over 1 million people in 2060!

Luxembourg, a land of immigration

Working people attracted by the quality of life

Expatriates regularly rank Luxembourg among the top 10 countries to live in.

Luxembourg enjoys an excellent quality of life. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is one of the safest countries in the world.

Life expectancy in Luxembourg is 80.3 years for men and 84.8 years for women. It is one of the only countries to have increased its life expectancy in recent years, despite the Covid crisis. It must be said that the Luxembourg health system is very efficient. The social and family policy is also valued. Social benefits are important.

Today, 80% of Luxembourg’s population growth is due to immigration. It is mostly young immigration.

The job market is dynamic. Young workers find career opportunities and interesting income prospects in Luxembourg. The Grand Duchy is constantly attracting an active population looking for work.

On the other hand, real estate prices are high and reach price levels comparable to those of London and Paris in some areas. It is becoming difficult to find housing.

See where immigrants settle when they arrive in Luxembourg.

Historical immigration

Luxembourg has long been a welcoming place.

As early as the 19th century, many Italians immigrated to the south of Luxembourg to work in the mines. The movement continued until the mid-1960s.

The Portuguese then arrived in Luxembourg in several waves corresponding to the crises in Portugal: end of the sixties, 1975-1982, 2003-2009. Today they represent the first foreign community.

Recent immigration

Since 2014, French immigration has taken over. The French represented in 2019 nearly 15% of migrants.

In 2021, the Portuguese are again the first community to settle in Luxembourg with 3,885 new arrivals. In the same year, the French came second, with 3,590 immigrants.

The Italians, numbering 1,909 new residents, represent the 3rd largest migratory flow.

Spaniards and Indians accounted for 8.3% and 7.7% of net migration that year, respectively.

The most represented new residents are Romanians, Brazilians, Syrians, Germans and Greeks.

Ukrainians numbered 1,075 nationals as of January 1, 2022. The war waged by Russia on Ukrainian territory should lead to a sharp increase in the number of Ukrainian nationals on Luxembourg soil.

On the other hand, in 2021 there will be a negative net migration of 1,486 Luxembourgers.

A multicultural Luxembourg society

One of the major characteristics of the Luxembourg population is the high proportion of foreigners. More than 47% of the population is foreign. Persons who have acquired Luxembourg nationality are counted among the Luxembourg population.

Foreign communities in Luxembourg

More than 175 different nationalities coexist in Luxembourg.

A mainly European population

The most represented communities on the Luxembourg territory are :

  • the Portuguese community with 93,678 representatives. The Portuguese represent the 1st foreign community, i.e. 15.55% of the Luxembourg population,
  • the French community with 49,173 nationals. It is the 2nd largest foreign community with more than 7.6% of the population of the Grand Duchy,
  • the Italian community with 24,116 people and 3.74% of the population,
  • the Belgian community with more than 19,414 residents,
  • the German community with 12,796 people
  • the Spanish community (8,388 residents)
  • the Romanian community (6,405 residents)
  • the Polish community (5,020 residents)
  • the Chinese community which enters the top ten with 4,142 residents
  • the British community (4,104 inhabitants against 5,766 in 2020, a decrease of 28%)
  • the Dutch community (4,069 inhabitants)
  • the Greek community with 4,017 inhabitants.

Other foreign communities

The Baltic and Scandinavian communities represent more than 6,800 people in Luxembourg.

The Asian communities represent 19,066 people in Luxembourg, i.e. 3% of the population, the Africans 13,668 people (2% of the population), the Americans 7,707 people including 4,901 North Americans, the Australians and the Oceanians 244 people.

To learn more about the foreign communities in Luxembourg, visit the Just Arrived Ambassadors Club website.

The share of Luxembourgers remains stable.

For the third year in a row, the number of naturalizations has decreased by more than 27%. Only 6,801 people were naturalized compared to 9,387 in 2020. This can be explained by the fact that naturalization by recovery (presence of a Luxembourgish ancestor) will soon come to an end.

Languages spoken in Luxembourg

Upon arrival in the country, one is struck by the diversity of languages spoken in public spaces. This is due to the strong presence of foreigners.

The Ministry of National Education showed in 2018 that 98% of the population speaks French. English is spoken at 80%. German and Luxembourgish are used at 78 and 77%.

There are 3 official languages in Luxembourg:

  • From the very beginning of school life, children speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish has been the national language since 1984. It is used as the language of everyday exchanges. The knowledge of Luxembourgish is mandatory to obtain Luxembourgish nationality by naturalization.
  • Children learn German from the time they start elementary school. German is the language of literacy and reading. It is also traditionally the language of newspapers,
  • The children learn French from the 2nd year of elementary school, in addition to German. French is now introduced in the nursery and kindergarten, in oral learning. Since the beginning of the school year 2022, pilot schools in southern Luxembourg have been testing literacy in French.

The French channel TV5 Monde’s program”Destination francophonie au Luxembourg” shows the learning of languages at the primary school.

From the moment they enter the Luxembourg school system, foreign children are given language support to facilitate their integration.

Do you want to learn the reference languages in Luxembourg? There is a wide range of language courses on offer.

Luxembourg’s population has a Christian majority

According to a study published in 2011 by the CEPS, the majority of the Luxembourg population is Christian.

Christians represent 73% of the population. More than 90% of them are Catholic.

Almost 25% of the population does not claim any religion. The Muslim religion is on the rise in recent years. Nearly 2% of the population practices the Muslim faith. These people are mainly from the former Yugoslavia.

A working population boosted by Europe

A population looking for work

The Luxembourg labor market is very active. In addition to the nearly 250,000 Luxembourg resident workers, more than 215,000 workers are cross-border commuters. They cross the French, Belgian and German borders every day to work in Luxembourg.

More and more international companies are moving to Luxembourg. This is notably the case for Amazon, Ferrero, BGL BNPParibas, large international audit firms, … These large multinationals attract senior executives from all continents.

Many European officials

The numerous European institutions present in Luxembourg also explain this constant flow of population, according to the movements of European officials.

Today, more than 10,000 European officials are located in Luxembourg. They constitute nearly 5% of the resident workforce.

3,700 people work for the European Commission.

In 2020, a mini-earthquake shakes the European world. The Chafea, Executive Agency for Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food is leaving the Gasperich district. She had been working there for over 10 years. 80 people leave the Grand Duchy. Relocated to Brussels, it could be dissolved.

For some, this could be a sign that Luxembourg is gradually losing its status as the capital of the European Union . It is also known that many European officials are now reluctant to come to Luxembourg. Despite an undeniable quality of life, Luxembourg unfortunately has too high rents and traffic problems.