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The population in Luxembourg

The population in Luxembourg is characterised, on one hand, by strong demographic growth, mainly due to a positive migratory inflow and, on the other hand, by a high proportion of foreigners among Luxembourgish residents.

The population of Luxembourg in 2020

The number of inhabitants in Luxembourg amounted to 314,900 people in 1961 with a proportion of 13.2% of foreigners. The country reached a population of 626,108 on January 2020. The proportion of foreigners is at that date 47,4%, generally younger than Luxembourgers.
The studies of STATEC, the National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, even predicts in its late 2017 studies a population overtaking 1 million people in 2060!

A small population with a good quality of life

Luxembourg is one of the smallest European countries and one of the least populated. It is characterised by a high standard of living and increasing life expectancy. Social and family policy is valued and the employment market is dynamic. Incomes prospects are attractive.

The standard of living in Luxembourg is relatively high compared to other European countries in particular, and more particularly to neighboring countries. High wagessignificant social benefits, the Grand Duchy attracts a population looking for a job, security and a good quality of life.

Certain budget headings such as accommodation can reach price levels comparable to those in London and Paris in certain districts, the remunerations are undoubtedly superior in Luxembourg than the European average, and more particularly than the other areas of the Greater Region.

See the cost of living of the Luxembourgish residents

Luxembourg a land of immigration

Highly appreciated by expatriates who come there to find career opportunities and an excellent quality of life, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is one of the countries recognised as the safest ones in the world.  Today, 80% of the population growth is due to immigration. It is mainly a young immigration. See where immigrants settle at first, when they arrive in Luxembourg.

For a long time now, Luxembourg has been a land of welcome for many immigrants who come here to find a job, among other things. It was the Italians who arrived after the Second World War until the mid-sixties. They were followed by the Portuguese, who arrived in Luxembourg in several waves, corresponding to the crises in Partugal: end of the sixties, 1975-1982, 2003-2009. Since 2014, French immigration takes over. In 2019, they represent nearly 15% of migrants.

See what expats like or not in Luxembourg

A luxembourgish multicultural society

One of the major characteristics of the Luxembourg population is the strong proportion of foreigners, since 170 different nationalities coexist in Luxembourg, of which 86% are European.

Communities that are the most present on the Luxembourg territory are:

  • The Portuguese community with 95,516 representatives and which represents the 1st foreign community in Luxembourg, that is to say 15,55% of the Luxembourg population;
  • The French community with 46,938 nationals, being the 2nd foreign community and about 7.6% of the population of the Grand Duchy;
  • The Italian community with 22,465 people;
  • The Belgian community with 19,953 residents;
  • The German community with 13,015 people;
  • The Spanish community with 6,801 people;
  • The British community (5,766 inhabitants);
  • the Romanian community with 5,092 residents;
  • the Polish community with 4,708 residents
  • The Dutch community (4,207 inhabitants).

The communities of the Baltic and Scandinavian countries represent about 10,000 people in Luxembourg.

The Asian people represent nearly 14,449 people in Luxembourg, the African 10,013 people, the Americans 6,459 including 2,730 north-american people, Australian, and Oceanian 207 people.

To know more about the foreign communities present in Luxembourg, consult the website of Just Arrived Ambassadors Club.

Spoken languages by the population in Luxembourg

Considering the multiple origins of the inhabitants of Luxembourg, one is struck upon his arrival in the country by the diversity of the languages that are spoken.

However, 3 official languages exist in Luxembourg:

  • The national language, namely Luxembourgish, used upon the first year of school. It is also the language used in the daily interactions. Knowledge of Lëtzebuergësch is compulsory in order to obtain Luxembourg nationality by naturalisation.
  • German, that is taught to the children entering primary school. It is the language of literacy and traditionally the one used in the press field,
  • French is traditionally taught to the children from the 2nd year of primary school, as an additional language to German. As from 2017/2018, French must be introduced beforehand, even from day nursery, through speaking.

Your children benefit from a language tutoring upon their entrance in the Luxembourg school system, which facilitates their integration.

Want to learn the Luxembourg reference languages? There is a very rich offer of language courses for adults.

A Luxembourg population with a Christian majority

According to a study published in 2011 by CEPS, the Luxembourg population is mainly of Christian religion (73%), among which more than 90% of Catholics. About 25% of the population claims no religion. The increasing Muslim religion is represented by 2% of the population, essentially stemming from ex-Yugoslavia.

To know the places of worship for the different religions, click here.

Luxembourg’s working population boosted by Europe

The Luxembourg labor market is a very active marketbecause besides 254,000 Luxembourg resident workers, more than 192,000 border workers cross every day the French, Belgian and German borders in order to work in Luxembourg.

More and more international companies come to settle down in Luxembourg, such as Amazon, Ferrero, BGL BNPParibas, the big international audit firms… and thus attract senior executives.

Besides, the numerous European institutions present in Luxembourg can also explain partially this constant flow of population according to the movements of the EU officials.
The Court of Justice, the Tribunal of First Instance, the General Accounting Office, the European Investment Bank, the Secretarial Office of the European Parliament, and several departments of the European Commission are mainly situated in the district of Kirchberg. The Ecole Européenne I can also be found there.

Nowadays, almost 10,000 international EU officials are settled in Luxembourg and constitute about 5% of the resident working population.

To know more about the labor market in Luxembourg.

To know more about history and politics in Luxembourg.