Devise Luxembourg Mir wolle BleiwenAfter a history pushed aside over the course of successions and other conflicts in Europe, Luxembourg became a Grand Duchy in 1815 and acquired its independence in 1839.
The country has been managed by Grand Duke Henri since 2000, within a constitutional monarchy.
Luxembourg is one of the founding countries of the European Union,  particularly due to Robert Schuman, Luxemburger of origin.

Luxembourg nowadays shelters numerous European institutions and attracts a very international population.

An enlivened ancient history in Europe

Luxembourg-city,capital of Luxembourg, holds its name from a small castle, Lucilinburhuc, built by the count Sigefroi in 963. It gave birth to the city, then to the County and, in 1353, to the Duchy of Luxembourg.

This small castle becomes, in the course of the centuries, one of the most powerful fortresses in Europe in the 19th century. It will be even qualified as “Gibraltar of the North”.

The County successively belonged to the Saint Empire Germanique when created in 962, to the Netherlands with Philip, Duke of Burgundy in 1443, to the Spanish Hapsburg in 1555 with the abdication of Charles Quint, and then to France in 1659 with the Traité des Pyrénées (Pyrenees treaty). It was at that time that Vauban fortifications were built.

In 1697, the county goes back to Spain, the War of Succession of which provoked Luxembourg’s cession to Austria in 1715, then to France due to the blockade of the Revolution’s troops in 1795.

In 1815, the Congress of Vienna returns Luxembourg, then become “Grand Duchy”, to the Netherlands. With the Treaty of London in 1839, Luxembourg acquires its independence and its current form, a part of it being given to Belgium (the province of belgian Luxembourg).

After a history pushed aside over the course of successions and other conflicts in Europe, Luxembourg became a Grand Duchy in 1815 and acquired its independence in 1839.

“Mir wölle bleiwe wat mir sin” – “We want to remain what we are”

Luxembourg’s motto testifies of its will of independence towards countries having annexed it and its will to keep its national identity.

The constitutional monarchy, the Luxembourg political system

From a political point of view, Luxembourg is a representative democracy, in the form of a constitutional monarchy.

The national holiday is on the 23rd of June, the symbolic day of the Grand Duke’s birthday.

The Head of State: the Grand Duke

In 1890, Luxembourg obtains its own dynasty with the accession of Grand Duke Adolphe.

The Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde will succeed him in 1912 and will abdicate in 1919 further to the invasion of the German troops during the WW1. Her sister, the Grand Duchess Charlotte succeeds her. During the WW2, the country is invaded again by the German troops. The Grand Duchess and her government retreat. Luxembourg is freed in June 1944 by the American troops.

Grand-Duc Henri, Chef de l'Etat luxembourgeois

Grand-Duc Henri

The Grand Duke Jean succeeds her mother in 1964, further to the abdication of the Grand Duchess Charlotte.

His Royal Highness, the Grand Duke Henri succeeds himself his father, the Grand Duke Jean in October 2000. He has since been occupying the throne with his wife, Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess Maria-Teresa, native of Cuba.

The Grand Duke Heir is Prince Guillaume, their elder son, accompanied with his wife the Grand Duchess Heiress, Princess Stéphanie, of Belgian origin.

Visit the Grand-Ducal Palace in Luxembourg city

Luxembourg government

At the head of the government is named a Prime Minister, as well as a Chamber of Deputies that discusses and passes the laws. The government stemming from the early elections of 2013 is a coalition government.

The current Prime Minister is Xavier Bettel, stemming from the Democratic Party ( DP) and allied in coalition of 3 with the socialists and the ecologists. He took up his post in December 2013, following Jean-Claude Juncker that had been in office during almost 19 years. The CSV, the social Christian popular party, in power for almost 35 years, finds itself in the opposition.

The next general election will take place in October 2018.

The municipalities of Luxembourg

The Luxembourg municipalities constitute autonomous administrative entities from a legal and budgetary point of view. Every municipality manages its local interests in complete autonomy, in respect of national directives.

At the head of every municipality, a mayor and his city council are elected for 6 years by the inhabitants of the municipality.

The City Council, constituted of the mayor and his 2 aldermen, represents the executive power.

Luxembourg, one of the founding countries of the European Union

Luxembourg is one of the 6 founder membres of the European Union. Some of its citizens became illustrious figures, like Robert Schuman, born in Luxembourg in 1886, one of the “founding fathers” of Europe. In 1952, the city of Luxembourg was the first workplace of the community institutions.

The Luxembourg capital, Luxembourg city, reaches the status of European capital in 1986 further to the fusion of the European institutions, just as Brussels and Strasbourg.

The city of Luxembourg nowadays hosts several institutions and European organs: the Court of Justice, the Court of Auditors, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund and several European Commission services. We moreover talk about the “European district” of Kirchberg.

Nowadays, we count among the Luxembourg residents some 10,000 European state employees.

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